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Latijnse naam: Ganoderma lucidum

Andere namen: reishi mushroom, red reishi, Ling Zhi mushroom, mushroom of inmortality, Varnish conck, phantom mushroom, ten thousand year mushroom (Engels), Glänzender Lackporling (Duits), Ganoderme luisant (Frans) 

Actieve componenten: polysacchariden (betaglucanen 1.3), triterpenoïden, alkaloïden, glucosiden, steroïden (ergosterol), amino zuren, enzymen,lipiden, carbohydraten, vitamines (vitamine B2, C) 

Reishi is een paddenstoel die behoort tot de ganodermataceae familie. In China wordt de paddenstoel al meer dan 4000 jaar gebruikt vanwege zijn medicinale eigenschappen (ref: 1,2,6 en 8). Populaire andere namen zijn: "paddenstoel van onsterfelijkheid" en "10.000 jaar paddenstoel" vanwege de veronderstelde gezondheidseigenschappen. De paddenstoel is niet giftig en veilig in het gebruik. Er is wetenschappelijk onderzoek gedaan naar de medicinale effecten van reishi, de belangrijkste gevonden eigenschappen zijn een immunomodulerende (ref: 5,7,9,20), anti virale (ref: 17 t/m 19), anti bacteriële (ref: 15) en een bloeddrukverlagende (ref: 37 t/m 41) en leverbeschermende (ref: 11,12 en 13) werking. Op dit moment wordt er ook veel onderzoek gedaan naar de anti kanker eigenschappen van de paddenstoel (ref: 3,4,5,7,10,21,30). 

Toepassing Resihi in TCM (Traditional Chinese Medicine)
TCM naam Ling zhi cao (Chinees), mannentake (Japans)
Smaak Zoet en mild bitter
Werking Hart, longen, milt
Toepassing Neutraal tot licht warm
Bestaand wetenschappelijk onderzoek
Gebied Onderzoek
Afweersysteem 1,2,4,5,6,8,10,11,20,22
Anti viraal 1,2,17,18,19
Anti tumor/kanker 1,2,3,7,8,21,22
Glucose niveau  
Ontstekingsremmend 8
Anti coagulantie  
Leverbescherming 12,13,14,16
Wetenschappelijke artikelen Reishi - 41 beschikbare referenties
    1. Bensky D, Clavey S, Stogër E, Gamble A. Ling Zhi. Chinese Herbal Medicine: Materia Medica. 3rd ed. Seattle: Eastland Press; 2004:933-935.
    2. Upton R. Reishi mushroom Ganoderma lucidum. Santa Cruz, Calif: American Herbal Pharmacopoeia; 2000.
    3. Sliva D. Ganoderma lucidum (reishi) in cancer treatment. Integr Cancer Ther 2003;2:358-364. PMID: 16458355
    4. Lin YL, Liang YC, Lee SS, Chiang BL. Polysaccharide purified from Ganoderma lucidum induced activation and maturation of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells by the NF-?B and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. J Leukoc Biol 2005;78:533-543. PMID: 15894585
    5. Kuo MC, Weng CY, Ha CL, Wu MJ. Ganoderma lucidum mycelia enhance innate immunity by activating NF-?B. J Ethnopharmacol 2005;103:217-222. PMID: 16169168
    6. Chen J, Chen T. Ling Zhi (Ganoderma). Chinese Medical Herbology and Pharmacology. City of Industry, Calif: Art of Medicine Press Inc; 2004:770-771.
    7. Wasser SP. Medicinal mushrooms as a source of antitumor and immunomodulating polysaccharides. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2002;60:258-274. PMID: 12436306
    8. Hobbs C. Medicinal Mushrooms: an Exploration of Tradition, Healing, & Culture. 3rd ed. Loveland, Colo: Interweave Press; 1996.
    9. Lu Z, Lin Z. Antagonistic effect of Ganoderma polysaccharides peptide against immunosuppression caused by repetitive in vivo treatments of morphine. International Symposium on Ganoderma Research. Program and Abstracts vol. Beijing: Beijing Medical University; 1994:82.
    10. Kim HS, Kacew S, Lee BM. In vitro chemopreventive effects of plant polysaccharides (Aloe barbadensis Miller, Lentinus edodes, Ganoderma lucidum and Coriolus versicolor). Carcinogenesis 1999;20:1637-1640. PMID: 10426820
    11. Kim DH, Shim SB, Kim NJ, Jang IS. Beta-glucuronidase-inhibitory activity and hepatoprotective effect of Ganoderma lucidum. Biol Pharm Bull 1999;22:162-164. PMID: 10077435
    12. Lin WC, Lin WL. Ameliorative effect of Ganoderma lucidum on carbon tetrachloride-induced liver fibrosis in rats. World J Gastroenterol 2006;12:265-270. PMID: 16482628
    13. Yang XJ, Liu J, Ye LB et al. In vitro and in vivo protective effects of proteoglycan isolated from mycelia of Ganoderma lucidum on carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury. World J Gastroenterol 2006;12:1379-1385.PMID: 16552805
    14. Sperker B, Backman JT, Kroemer HK. The role of beta-glucuronidase in drug disposition and drug targeting in humans. Clin Pharmacokinet 1997;33:18-31. PMID: 9250421
    15. Yoon SY, Eo SK, Kim YS et al. Antimicrobial activity of Ganoderma lucidum extract alone and in combination with some antibiotics. Arch Pharm Res 1994;17:438-442. PMID: 10319155
    16. Oh KW, Lee CK, Kim YS et al. Antiherpetic activities of acidic protein bound polysacchride isolated from Ganoderma lucidum alone and in combinations with acyclovir and vidarabine. J Ethnopharmacol 2000;72:221-227. PMID: 10967475
    17. Eel-Mekkawy S, Meselhy MR, Nakamura N et al. Anti-HIV-1 and anti-HIV-1-protease substances from Ganoderma lucidum. Phytochemistry 1998;49:1651-1657. PMID: 9862140
    18. Eo SK, Kim YS, Lee CK, Han SS. Antiviral activities of various water and methanol soluble substances isolated from Ganoderma lucidum. J Ethnopharmacol 1999;68:129-136. PMID: 10624872
    19. Eo SK, Kim YS, Lee CK, Han SS. Possible mode of antiviral activity of acidic protein-bound polysaccharide isolated from Ganoderma lucidum on herpes simplex viruses. J Ethnopharmacol 2000;72:475-481. PMID: 10996289
    20. Kohguchi M, Kunikata T, Watanabe H et al. Immuno-potentiating effects of the antler-shaped fruiting body of Ganoderma lucidum (Rokkaku-Reishi). Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 2004;68:881-887. PMID: 15118318
    21. Wang SY, Hsu ML, Hsu HC et al. The anti-tumor effect of Ganoderma lucidum is mediated by cytokines released from activated macrophages and T lymphocytes. Int J Cancer 1997;70:699-705. PMID: 9096652
    22. Gao Y, Zhou S, Jiang W et al. Effects of ganopoly (a Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide extract) on the immune functions in advanced-stage cancer patients. Immunol Invest 2003;32:201-215. PMID: 12916709
    23. Hijikata Y, Yamada S. Effect of Ganoderma lucidum on postherpetic neuralgia. Am J Chin Med 1998;26:375-381.PMID: 9862025
    24. Wong KL, Chao HH, Chan P et al. Antioxidant activity of Ganoderma lucidum in acute ethanol-induced heart toxicity. Phytother Res 2004;18:1024-1026. PMID: 15742340
    25. Chen WC, Hau DM, Lee SS. Effects of Ganoderma lucidum and krestin on cellular immunocompetence in gamma-ray-irradiated mice. Am J Chin Med 1995;23:71-80. PMID: 7598094
    26. Kubo N, Myojin Y, Shimamoto F et al. Protective effects of a water-soluble extract from cultured medium of Ganoderma lucidum (Rei-shi) mycelia and Agaricus blazei murill against X-irradiation in B6C3F1 mice: increased small intestinal crypt survival and prolongation of average time to animal death. Int J Mol Med 2005;15:401-406.PMID: 15702228
    27. Kim KC, Kim IG. Ganoderma lucidum extract protects DNA from strand breakage caused by hydroxyl radical and UV irradiation. Int J Mol Med 1999;4:273-277. PMID: 10425278
    28. Cao QZ, Lin ZB. Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides peptide inhibits the growth of vascular endothelial cell and the induction of VEGF in human lung cancer cell. Life Sci 2006;78:1457-1463. PMID: 16269156
    29. McKenna D, Jones K, Hughes K, Humphrey S. Reishi. Botanical Medicines. 2nd ed. Binghamton, NY: Haworth Press; 2002:825-851.
    30. Kupin V. A new biological response modifier-Ganoderma lucidum-and its application in oncology. The 4th International Symposium on Ganoderma lucidum. Seoul, Korea: Seoul National University; 1992:36-39.
    31. Teow S. The therapeutic value of Ganoderma lucidum. In: Buchanan P, Heu R, Moncalvo J, eds. Ganoderma: systematics, phytopathology and pharmacology. Proceedings of Contributed Symposium 59 A, B, 5th International Mycological Congress. Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China; 1995:105-113.
    32. Shimizu A, Yano T, Saito Y, Inada Y. Isolation of an inhibitor of platelet aggregation from a fungus, Ganoderma lucidum. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 1985;33:3012-3015. PMID: 4085058
    33. Su CY, Shiao MS, Wang CT. Differential effects of ganodermic acid S on the thromboxane A2-signaling pathways in human platelets. Biochem Pharmacol 1999;58:587-595. PMID: 10413295
    34. Su C, Shiao M, Wang C. Potentiation of ganodermic acid S on prostaglandin E(1)-induced cyclic AMP elevation in human platelets. Thromb Res 2000;99:135-145. PMID: 10946087
    35. Tao J, Feng KY. Experimental and clinical studies on inhibitory effect of Ganoderma lucidum on platelet aggregation. J Tongji Med Univ 1990;10:240-243. PMID: 2098581
    36. Kwok Y, Ng KFJ, Li CCF et al. A prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of the platelet and global hemostatic effects of Ganoderma lucidum (Ling-Zhi) in healthy volunteers. Anesth Analg 2005;101:423-426, table of contents. PMID: 16037156
    37. Berger A, Rein D, Kratky E et al. Cholesterol-lowering properties of Ganoderma lucidum in vitro, ex vivo, and in hamsters and minipigs. Lipids Health Dis 2004;3:2. PMID: 14969592
    38. Shiao MS. Natural products of the medicinal fungus Ganoderma lucidum: occurrence, biological activities, and pharmacological functions. Chem Rec 2003;3:172-180. PMID: 12900937
    39. Hikino H, Konno C, Mirin Y, Hayashi T. Isolation and hypoglycemic activity of ganoderans A and B, glycans of Ganoderma lucidum fruit bodies. Planta Med 1985:339-340. PMID: 3840903
    40. Hikino H, Ishiyama M, Suzuki Y, Konno C. Mechanisms of hypoglycemic activity of ganoderan B: a glycan of Ganoderma lucidum fruit bodies. Planta Med 1989;55:423-428. PMID: 2682700
    41. Zhang HN, Lin ZB. Hypoglycemic effect of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides. Acta Pharmacol Sin 2004;25:191-195. PMID: 14769208